Sodium is a chemical compound derived from the Latin word natrium, with the symbol Na. Sodium is an alkali metal in the periodic table which belongs to group 1, period 3 and s- block member. Na metal atomic number (Z) is 11, and atomic mass is 22.98u. In 1807 Humphry Davy discovered the sodium elements.
Properties Of Sodium Element
- Sodium is a silver-white, soft and highly reactive element.
- The electronic configuration of sodium is [Ne] 3s1.
- Melting and boiling point of sodium element is 97.794°C and 882.940°C, respectively.
- The density of sodium metal is 0.97 g cm-3.
- There are 20 isotopes of sodium available, but stable isotopes of Na is 23Na.
Use Of Sodium element
- Sodium used to improve the structure of soap, certain alloys etc.
- Sodium used in the purification of molten metals and in vapour lamps of sodium.
- Sodium is an essential element in the synthesis of organic compounds such as ester, etc.
- Sodium ions are found in nerve cells and they transport the water across the membrane.
Important Compounds Of Sodium
Sodium element reacts rapidly with other substances forming useful compounds such as water-soluble compounds such as sulphate, halides, nitrates, carbonates and carboxylate. Many water-insoluble compounds, such as NaBiO3(Sodium Bismuthate), Na4Pt6S6(Sodium thio platinate), etc. are also formed.
Sodium carbonate is an inorganic chemical compound and is commonly referred to as washing soda or soda ash. The chemical formula of sodium carbonate is Na2CO3. It is a water-soluble compound and on dissolving in water, it produces sodium hydroxide and carbonic acid. Sodium carbonate can be produced by four processes, namely Leblanc process, Electrolytic process, Dual-process and Solvay process.
Properties Of Sodium Carbonate compound
- It is a strong base.
- It acts as an antacid.
- Compounds soluble in ethanol and insoluble in water.
- A pH of the compound is about 10.52.
- Na2CO3 is used as a water softener.
Sodium chloride is also known as salt, it is an inorganic chemical compound with the chemical formula NaCl. The molecular weight of sodium chloride is 58.44 g/mol. NaCl is a white colour crystalline solid. The aqueous form of sodium chloride is known as saline solution. NaCl is a water-soluble compound containing Na+ and Cl- ions in the ratio of 1:1.
Properties And Applications Of Sodium Chloride Compound
- Sodium chloride is a salt.
- It is a water-soluble compound.
- A pH of the compound is 7.
- It is used in water softening, toothpaste, shampoo etc.
Sodium hydroxide is an inorganic chemical compound with the chemical formula NaOH. The other name of sodium hydroxide is lye or caustic soda and it consists of Na+ cation and OH– anion.
Properties And Use of Sodium Hydroxide Compound
- It is an odourless, white crystalline solid.
- NaOH is soluble in water, ethanol and glycerol.
- When NaOH is dissolved in water, it results in an exothermic reaction.
- It is an ionic compound and highly acidic.
- A pH of the compound is 13.
- NaOH is used in the synthesis of soap, in the conversion of hard water to soft water and in the synthesis of glass, etc.
- In the textiles industry, laboratory and the production of various chemical compound, NaOH is used.